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Coin Detail
Click here to see enlarged image.
ID:     810204
Type:     Central Europe and Italy
Region:     Beneventum
City:     Princes
Issuer:     Grimoald III and Charlemagne
Date Ruled:     788-789 AD
Metal:     Gold
Denomination:     Solidus
Struck / Cast:     struck
Date Struck:     AD 788-792
Diameter:     21 mm
Weight:     3.81 g
Die Axis:     6 h
Obverse Legend:     +GRIM (wedge) (wedge) VALD
Obverse Description:     Crowned and draped facing bust, holding globus cruciger
Reverse Legend:     DOMS CAR• ligate RX / S - R / VICΔ
Reverse Description:     Cross potent on three steps; G R flanking, four pellets above, pellets flanking base; VICΔ
Primary Reference:     Oddy 445
Reference2:     CNI XVIII 5
Reference3:     BMC Vandals 3-5
Reference4:     cf. MEC 1, 1098 (tremissis)
Photograph Credit:     Classical Numismatic Group
Grade:     Near EF, bezel removed
Notes:     Very rare. Ruling Beneventum from 788 until his death in 806, tried to strike a balance between his own rule and a recognition of Frankish overlordship in Italy. In 787, he and his elder brother Romoald had been sent by their father, Arechisas, hostages to Charlemagne, who by then controlled the Italian peninsula as far as Salerno, and demanded the submission of Beneventum as well. In return for peace, Arechis recognized Charlemagne's overlordship while handing over his sons as hostages.When his father and brother both died in 788, Grimoald was allowed to return to Italy. While he recognized Charlemagne as overlord, he was permitted a certain amount of autonomy to help defend Italy from any further Byzantine encroachment. That same year, Grimoald faced a Byzantine-sponsored invasion of Lombardy, led by Adalgis, the son of the last Lombard king. Assisted by a Frankish army, Grimoald defeated the Byzantine force as it attempted to make land. Bolstered by this success, Grimoald tried to declare independence from Frankish authority, and was successful for a brief period. In 792 Charlemagne's sons, Pepin, King of Italy and Charles the Younger, forced Grimoald to submit and reacknowledge Frankish overlordship, bringing Grimoald’s independence to an end.